Not much is known about the life of the historical Jesus. Other than the Gospels, there are not too many sources recording the early life of Jesus.
Basic facts about the historical Jesus:
It wasn't until he was in his thirties that Jesus became a public figure. He preached salvation through a belief in God and himself as the messiah. He preached about dedicating one's life to the poor. He had a small group of followers known as apostles who helped spread Jesus' message. As Jesus became more popular, some leaders in Jerusalem saw him as dangerous because he challenged the "status quo." He was brought up on charges of blasphemy.
Pontius Pilate was the Roman governor of Judea from 26 to 37 C.E. After being tortured and brought before a crowd, Jesus was sentenced to death.
Crucifixion was a common Roman method of execution. However, we are not sure today how crucifixion was actually done, since there was no uniform practice. One thing is for sure: crucifixion was a slow and very painful death. Some people were even crucified upside down. Most times, people did not have nails driven through their hands; the nails went through their wrists. And people died through the process of suffocation. The weight of being hanged in such a way caused the rib cage to gradually collapse, making it harder to breathe.
Below is a short video, explaining the science of crucifixion.